27 October 2007

Introduction to Interconnect Technologies

Interconnects are dominating in deep sub micron level VLSI design due to decreasing wire pitch. Increased complexities of circuits die size are also increasing. Planar 2-D ICs may not fulfill the requirement of heterogeneous integration of different technologies in single IC. As technology nodes advanced below 250nm, interconnect delays started dominating heavily. The introduction of Cu/low-k interconnects provided lesser resistivity and hence reduced delay. But in deep submicron domain (bellow 130 nm) even these interconnects added considerable delay due to increased resistivity owing several material limitations. [1-4]. Interconnected related problems like increased delay and power consumption are tackled by 3-D ICs which shorten the total interconnect length. [1][5].This part of the article series discusses these issues mainly based on reference [1].


[1] Kaustav Banerjee, Shukri J. Souri, Pawan Kapur, And Krishna C. Saraswat, 3-D ICs: A Novel Chip Design for Improving Deep-Submicrometer Interconnect Performance and Systems-on-Chip Integration, Proceedings Of The IEEE, pp.602-633,Vol. 89, NO. 5, May 2001, 0018–9219/01, 2001, IEEE

[2] Kaustav Banerjee, Shukri J. Souri, Pawan Kapur and Krishna C. Saraswat, 3-D Heterogeneous ICs: A Technology for the Next Decade and Beyond, 5th IEEE Workshop On Signal Propagation On Interconnects, Venice, Italy May, 13-16, 2001
[3] Jason Cong, An Interconnect-Centric Design Flow for Nanometer Technologies, Proceedings of the IEEE, pp.505-528, VOL. 89, No. 4, April 2001, 0018–9219/01,2001 IEEE
[4] Sungjun Im, Navin Srivastava, Kaustav Banerjee, and Kenneth E. Goodson, Thermal Scaling Analysis of Multilevel Cu/Low-k Interconnect Structures in Deep Nanometer Scale Technologies, Proceedings of the 22nd International VLSI Multilevel Interconnect Conference (VMIC), Oct. 3 - 6, Fremont, CA, pp. 525-530, 2005.
[5] Demystifying 3D ICs: The pros and cons of going vertical, http://www.ece.ncsu.edu/muse/papers/dtoc2005.pdf, 9/5/2007

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