26 November 2011

Verilog HDL: Operators, Number Specification, Underscore Characters, Strings, Identifiers and Keywords, Escaped Identifiers

Operators:

Unary          : Precede the operand; always comes left of the operand. Eg: a=~b;
Binary         : Appear between two operands. Eg: a=b&&c;
Conditional : Have two separate operators that separate three operands. Eg: a=b?c:d;

 

Number Specificaton:

Sized :

syntax:     

Size             --> no. of bits in the number; only decimal
Base format --> for decimal : ‘d or ‘D
                                      Hex :’h or ‘H
                                  Binary : ‘b or ‘B
                                    Octal : ‘o or ‘O
                                 
Number -> 0 to 9(if deci)
                  0 to F(if hex)
                  0 to 8(if oct)

Eg:
       4‘b1011    //4 bit binary no.
      12’habf      //12 bit hex no.
      16’d255     //16 bit decimal no.

Unsized Numbers:

Numbers that are specified without are decimal numbers by default.

Eg:  
          23456     //32 bit decimal no. by default
          ‘hc3       //32 bit hex no. by default
          ‘o21       //32 bit oct no. by default

X or Z values:

          X ---> denotes unknown value
          Z ---> denotes a high impedance value

Eg:

      12’h13X     //12 bit hex no.;4 LSBs are unknown
        6’hx          //6 bit hex no.;all 6 bits are unknown
      32’bz          //32 bit high impedance number

Negative Numbers:

Eg :

      -6’d3         //8 bit negative no. stored as 2’s complement of 3
      -6sd3        //used for performing signed integer math
       4’d-2       //illegal specification : ‘-’ is not allowed between and


Underscore Characters:

An underscore character “-” is allowed anywhere in a number except the first character. Underscore characters are allowed only to improve readability of numbers and are ignored by Verilog.

Strings:

  • Should be enclosed by double quotes
  • Must be in a single line without carriage return
  • Treated as a sequence of one byte ASCII values
Eg:        "This is asic-soc blog”    //is a string


Identifiers and Keywords:

  • Special reserved identifiers
  • Are in lowercase

Eg:

      reg value;          //’reg’ is keyword; ‘value’ is an identifier

      input clk;          //’input’ is a keyword; ‘clk’ is an identifier


Escaped Identifiers:

  • Begin with a backslash(\) character
  • End with whitespace(space, tab or newline)
  • Neither the backslash nor the terminating whitespace is considered to be a part of the identifier
Eg:      
         \a+s+v+d

         \**asic-soc-vlsi-design-blog**



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